Sex differences have been identified in a variety of cognitive domains (verbal abilities, spatial abilities, numerical abilities, memory functions). These differences have sometimes been explained either by sex hormone influences, sex differences in brain function or sex differences in cognitive strategies. However, only few studies have attempted to integrate these three approaches and link sex differences across tasks. Here, we focus on identifying principles in brain organization that may explain sex differences across different cognitive domains (Pletzer, 2014). The research on this topic is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF, FWF projects) and involves two PhD students (Andrea Scheuringer & TiAnni Harris).